Chloë and the Next 20th Century is Father John Misty's 5th studio album and his first full-length project since 2018. The album was written and recorded between August and December 2020. It was co-produced by Tillman and his longtime collaborator Jonathan Wilson. The two first recorded "basic tracks" at Wilson's Five Star Studios. Strings, brass, and woodwinds were recorded in a session at United Recordings which featured numerous musicians, including trumpeter Wayne Bergeron and saxophonist Dan Higgins. The album was engineered and mixed by Dave Cerminara and features arrangements by Drew Erickson.